Canadian Army Routine Orders

No. 6719

Applicable to Active Formations, Units, and Personnnel of the Canadian Army.

Headquarters, Ottawa

16th August, 1946

Adjutant-General's Branch


6719 --- CAMPAIGN STARS, CLASPS, THE DEFENCE MEDAL AND THE WAR MEDAL 1939-45

1.     RO 5950 and the Appendix thereto are cancelled.

2.     His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve the institution of The War Medal 1939-45 and changes in the time qualification for the Campaign Stars and The Defence Medal as set out hereunder.

3.     Canadian representations for inclusion of additional classes of Canadian Army personnel:

GENERAL

4.     The following are eligible for the Stars, Clasps, The Defence Medal and The War Medal 1939-45:-

(a)     All officers and other ranks, male and female, of the Canadian Armed Forces, and Canadians of both sexes who are officers or other ranks in the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom, Colonies or any other part of the British Commonwealth.

(b)     Accredited Canadian War Correspondents.

(c)     Members of the Canadian Red Oross, St. John Ambulance Brigade, Voluntary Aid Detachments and the Corps of Canadian Fire Fighters who have served overseas in an operational theatre or in a non-operational area subj ect to air attack or closely threatened, provided they are full time uniformed workers and qualifying service complies with the regulations herein.

5.     The Stars. Defence and War Medals will be worn in the following order: The 1939-45 Star, The Atlantic Star, The Air Crew Europe Star, The Africa Star, The Pacific Star. Thc Burma Star, The Italy Star, The France and Germany Star, The Defence Medal and The War Medal 1939-45.

These awards will allow Army personnel to wear five of the eight ribbons of the Campaign Stars, i.e.:-

The Ribbons of The Defence Medal and the War Medal 1939-45 may be worn by qualified recipients in addition to those granted for Campaign Stars.

6.     Definition of “qualifying service”

(a)     The service of personnel posted within a War Establishment or attached to a unit or formation for duty will be regarded as qualifying service.

(b)     Visits, journeys and inspections will not be a qualification unless they amount to thirty days and were specially approved by the Department concerned.

(c)     Service in ships making occasional visits to the defined areas for fueling and so forth will not necessarily be a qualification.

(d)     Service qualifying for one of the Stars cannot run concurrently with service qualifying for another of the Stars.

7.     Honours, Decorations, Mentions in Despatches and Commendations

Where qualification for the grant of a Campaign Star, The Defence Medal, or The War Medal 1939-45 is dependent upon the award of an honour, decoration, mention in despatches, commendation for brave conduct, or commendation for valuable service in the air, the Star Medal will only be awarded to those whose grant of an honour, decoration, mention or commendation has been published in the Canada Gazette.

8.     Clasps

No individual will be awarded more than one Clasp to anyone of the Stars. A record is to be made in every instance of the alternative Clasp or Clasps that would have been awarded but for the prior award of the Star first earned.

9.     Manufacture of Campaign Stars, The Defence Medal and The War Medal 1939-45

The Stars, Defence Medal and Star Medal 1939-45 have not yet been struck. These Medals together with ribbons will be issued to qualified personnel as soon as possible.

10.     Disposal of Awards to those who have died

Campaign Stars and Medals of those who have not lived to receive them will be disposed of in accordance with K.R. (Can) 1939, para 1359.

THE 1939-45 STAR

11.     The 1939-45 Star is granted for service in operations during the period from the 3rd September 1939, to the 2nd September 1945.

12.     Ribbon

The ribbon is dark blue, rrd and light blue in three equal vertical stripes. The dark blue stripe is intended to mark the service of the Royal Navy and of the Merchant Navy, the red stripe that of the Army, and the light blue stripe that of the Royal Air Force. It is to be worn with the dark blue stripe furthest from the left shoulder.

13.     (a)     The qualification is six months in an operational command during the period the 3rd September, 1939, to the 2nd September, 1945. As, however, there have been campaigns that have not covered six months, certain exceptions will be made. Where troops have been evacuated, e.g., from Dunkirk, Norway, etc., they will be eligible for the 1939-45 Star although their service in operations may have been less than six months, and specified Commando Raids will be similarly treated. Lists of these exceptions are to be found in paragraph 57 (iii) (iv) (viii) and (x) of this order. Service on passage to an operational command through dangerous waters will count towards the six months qualifying period. Airborne troops of the Army who have taken part in airborne operations will qualify subject to the completion of two months in a fully operational unit.

(b)     Qualifying service between the 8th May, 1945, and the 2nd September, 1945, must haye been rendered in operations in specified zones in the area bounded on the east by the west coast of the American Continent and on the west by a line running along the Western and then the Southern frontier of the Chinese Republic to the point where the Dihang River crosses the latter into Assam, along the left bank of this river and the Brahmaputra and Maghna Rivers, down the east Coast of India to Point Calimere, to the northernmost point of Ceylon and down the cast coast of Ceylon to the southernmost point of the Island, then along a line 300 miles south, thence to a point 300 miles west of the southernmost point of Sumatra, and continuing east to the Western side of Sunda Strait, thence through Christmas Island, and southwards along the Meridian of 110°E.

(c)     The Commonwealth of Australia, the Dominion of New Zealand and India (except parts of Assam and Bengal, for the purpose of the Burma operations) are not regarded as having been in the area of operational commands, and among the other territories in which service was not a qunlification there may be mentioned Ceylon, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Fiji Islands, Tonga Island, Phoenix Island and Fanning Island.

(d)     Operational service for a lesser period than six and two months respectively, but brought to an end by death, wounds or other disability due to service qualifies. The grant for service in operations, of an Honour, Decoration or Mention in Despatches or King's Commendaation is, in the armed Forces or the Merchant Navy a qualification for the award of the Star.

CLASP TO THE 1939-45 STAR

14.    The Clasp to the 1939-45 Star is granted to air crew of fighter aircraft engaged in the Battle of Britain between the 10th July and the 31st October, 1940, and the award of this is to be denoted by a gilt rose Emblem when the ribbon alone is worn.

THE ATLANTIC STAR

15.     The Atlantic Star is intended to commemorate the Battle of the Atlantic and is designed primarily for Convoys and their Escorts and Anti-Submarine forces, as well as for fast Merchant ships that sailed alone. The Atlantic Star will be granted for six months service afloat, in the Navy, in the Atlantic and Home waters, since the 3rd September, 1939, and until the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe and the Atlantic.

16.     Ribbon

The ribbon is blue, white and sea green, shaded and watered, the design being intended as a symbol of service in the Atlantic. The ribbon is to be worn with the blue edge furthest from the left shoulder.

17.     Army personnel serving in His Majesty's ships or in defensively equipped Merchant ships will qualify under rules similar to those for the Navy or Merchant Navy. The Navy regulations are quoted below:-

The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two months service in operations before a candidate can begin to qualify for-the Atlantic Star. (See also certain modifications of this rule in the sub-paragraphs below).

Service with Convoys to North Russia and service in South Atlantic west of longitude 20°E, will be included. Naval service from the 6th June, 1944, to 8th May, 1945, within the defined qualifying sea area for the France and Germany Star will not be counted towards the qualifying period for the Atlantic Star.

A Naval officer or rating who has served twelve months afloat in operational areas, any six months of which have been in the area qualifying for the Atlantic Star, will be regarded as having qualified for the Atlantic Star. This rule will apply also to Army and Air Force personnel serving at sea (otherwise than as aircrew).

Time spent as prisoner of war, however, by a Nayal officer or rating, will not be counted towards the total qualifying period of twelve months, unless the individual had completed his six months service for the 1939-45 Star and had begun to earn the Atlantic Star before being made prisoner.

18.     Service for the Atlantic Star brought to an end by death, wounds or other disability due to service, or marked by an award or mention in despatches, will qualify although it may not have amounted to six or two months as the case may be.

19.     There is a special rule in relation to the last six months of operational service up to the 8th May, 1945. Persons who entered operational service during the last six or two months, as the case may be, will, if they did not serve subsequently in another operational area, qualify for the Atlantic Star and the prior time qualification of six or two months respectively will not apply. The 1939-45 Star however, will not be awarded in such cases in which total operational service amounted to less than six or two months. Personnel serving in sea-going vessels operated by the Army and Air Force will qualify under similar rules.

CLASP TO THE ATLANTIC STAR

20.     A candidate who qualifies for the Atlantic Star, the France and Germany Star, and the Air Crew Europe Star mentioned below, or two of these, is awarded only the Star first earned. A Clasp is awarded with it denoting that the service which would have qualified for the second Star earned has been rendered. When the Atlantic Star is awarded under this provision and the ribbon alone is worn, a silver rose Emblem will denote the award of the France and Germany or Air Crew Europe Clasp as the case may be. No individual will be awarded more than one Clasp to the Atlantic Star.

THE AIR CREW EUROPE STAR

21.    The Air Crew Europe Star is intended as an award for operational flying from United Kingdom bases over Europe (including the United Kingdom) since the 3rd September, 1939, and up to the 5th June, 1944. The time qualification is two months service in air crew so employed. Air crew service in operations at sea will not be a qualification for the Air Crew Europe Star.

22.     Ribbon

The ribbon is light blue with black edges, and there is in addition a narrow yellow stripe on either side. The design is symbolic of the continuous service of the Air Forces by night and day.

23.     (a)     The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two, months service in operations before a candidate can begin to qualify for the Air Crew Europe Star.

(b)     Four months' service as air crew in an operational unit, any two months of which qualify for the Air Crew Europe Star, is regarded, however, as a qualification for that Star.

(c)     Time as prisoner of war, however, is not counted towards the total qualifying period of four months, unless the individual had completed his two months' service for the 1939-45 Star and had begun to earn the Air Crew Europe Star before being made prisoner.

(d)     Service for the Air Crew Europe Star brought to an end by death, wounds or other disability due to service, or marked by an award or mention in despatches, qualifies although it may not have amounted to two months.

24.     Canadian Army Officers and other ranks who served in air crew in operational flying from United Kingdom bases over Europe, including the United Kingdom, such as strategical bombing and in Fighter Sweeps from the United Kingdom will qualify for the Air Crew Europe Star.

25.     A candidate who qualifies for the Air Crew Europe Star, the Atlantic Star and the France and Germany Star, or two of these, is awarded only the Star first earned. A Clasp is awarded with it denoting that the service which would have qualified for the second Star earned has been rendered. When the Air Crew Europe Star is awarded under this provision and the ribbon alone is worn a silver rose Emblem will denote the award of the Atlantic, or France and Germany, Clasp as the case may be. No individual may be awarded more than one Clasp to the Air Crew Europe Star.

THE AFRICA STAR

26.    The Africa Star is granted for operational service of any length in North Africa from the date of the entry of Italy into the War on the 10th June, 1940, up to the date of the cessation of operations against the enemy in North Africa on the 12th May, 1943, inclusive.

27.     Ribbon

The ribbon is pale buff in colour, with a central vertical red stripe and narrower stripes, one dark blue and the other light blue. The background is intended as a symbol of the desert, the central red stripe stands for the Armies, the dark blue stripe for the Naval Forces and the Merchant Navy, and the light blue stripe for the Air Forces. The ribbon is to be worn with the dark blue stripe furthest from the left shoulder.

28.     The qualification is entry, as part of the establishment, into an operational command in North Africa. The individual should have been taken on the strength of a unit or formation. The whole of the area between the Canal and the Straits of Gibraltar is included. Service in operations in Abyssinia, Somali land and Eritrea, and also in Malta, is a qualification. Service in West Africa is excluded. Airborne troops of the Army who have taken part in airborne operations, in a qualifying Army area for land operations, will qualify.

29.     There is no condition that the 1939-45 Star should already have been earned.

30.     (a)     An Emblem in the form of a silver arabic "8" or "1" or a silver rose is worn on the ribbon in service dress denoting the award of one of these Clasps in the Army. The awards are restricted to service in the Eighth and First Armies respectively in the period from the 23rd October, 1942, inclusive, the date of the battle of el Alamein, up to the date of the cessation of operations against the enemy in North Africa on the 12th May, 1943. The silver rose Emblem is granted to those of 18th Army Group Headquarters who did not qualify either for the "8" or the "1" Emblem. Union Defence Force personnel attached to South African Air Force Squadrons which qualified for the silver rose Emblem, qualify for that emblem.

(b)     The rear or eastern boundary of the Eighth Army for this purpose ran approximately as follows: For the period from the 23rd October, 1942, to the 12th May, 1943, the line started from a point on the coast about 161 miles south-west of the centre of Alexandria and ran due south for about 6 miles. The line there turned south-south-east for about 36 miles, then due south for 61 miles and afterwards south-west for 40 miles. The line then turned westwards and ran more or less parallel with the coast.

(c)     The qualification for the First Army Clasp is (i) service in a unit or formation in Tunis or Algeria, between the 8th November, 1942, the date of the landings, and the 31st December, 1942, or (ii) thereafter, between the 1st January, 1943, and the 12th May, 1943, service in a unit or formation located forward of the First Army rear boundary or in a unit or formation under the command of First Army, including units or formations which were under the command of First Army for local defence and administration, irrespective of whether os not the unit or formation wus on the First. Army Order of Battle. The First Army rear boundary during the period the 1st January, 1943, to the 12th May, 1943, started on the coast of Algeria about 30 miles east of Bone and, subject to certain local digressions ran in a south-south-westerly direction for about 190 miles to Zribet-el-Oued.

31.     No individual will be awarded more than one Clasp to the Africa Star.

THE PACIFIC STAR

32.     The Pacific Star is awarded for entry into operational service in the Pacific theatre between the 8th December, 1941, and the 2nd September, 1945, inclusive. (For operational areas see paragraph 57 (v) and (vi).

33.     Ribbon

The ribbon is dark green with red edges and with a central yellow stripe. There are also two other narrow stripes, one dark blue and the other light blue. The green and yellow stand for the forests and the beaches of the Pacific, the red edges for the Armies, the dark blue stripe for tile Naval Forces and the Merchant Navies, and the light blue stripe for the Air Forces. The ribbon is to be worn with the dark blue stripe furthest from the left shoulder.

34.    (a)     Qualifying service on land in the Army is restricted to operational service in territories in which there have been enemy or Allied invasions. The dates vary for each particular territory. Service in Burma is excluded.

(b)     Operational service in China and Malaya from the 8th December, 1941, up to the 15th February, 1942, qualifies for the Pacific Star and from the 16th February, 1942, to the 2nd September, 1945, for the Burma Star. Airborne troops of the Army who have taken part in airborne operations, in a qualifying Army area for land operations, will qualify.

(c)     No prior time qualification is required for Army personnel.

CLASP TO THE PACIFIC STAR

35.     A candidate who qualifies for both the Pacific Star and the Burma Star mentioned below is awarded only one of these, the Star first earned. A Clasp is awarded with it denoting that service which would have qualified for the other Star has been rendered. When the Pacific Star is awarded under this provision and the ribbon alone is worn a silver rose Emblem will denote the award of the Burma Clasp.

THE BURMA STAR

36.     The Burma Star is granted for entry into operational service in the Burma campaign between the 11th December, 1941, and the 2nd September, 1945, inclusive. (For operational areas see paragraph 57 (vii) (viii)).

37.     Ribbon

The ribbon is dark blue with a central red stripe, and in addition two orange stripes. The red stands for the British Commonwealth Forces, and the orange for the sun, and these are placed on a contrasting background of dark blue.

38.     (a)    The qualifying area for land operation is service in Burma. In addition service on land from the 1st May, 1942, to the 31st December, 1943, in the provinces of Bengal and Assam and from the 1st January, 1944, until the 2nd September, 1945, in those parts of Bengal or Assam east of the Brahmaputra, qualifies.

(b)     Operational service in China and Malaya from the 8th December, 1941, up to the 15th February, 1942, qualifies for the Pacific Star, from the 16th February, 1942, to the 2nd September, 1945, for the Burma Star. Airborne troops of the Army who have taken part in airborne operations, in a qualifying Army area for land operations, will qualify.

(c)     There is no prior time qualification for Army personnel.

CLASP TO THE BURMA STAR

39.     A candidate who qualifies for both the Burma Star and the Pacific Star mentioned above is awarded only one of these, the Star first earned. A Clasp is awarded with it denoting that service which would have qualified for the other Star has been rendered. \Yhen the Burma Star is awarded under this provision and the ribbon alone is worn, a silver rose Emblem will denote the award of, the Pacific Clasp.

THE ITALY STAR

40.     The Italy Star is granted for entry into operational service on land in Sicily or in Italy at any time during the campaign there from the capture of Pantellaria on the 11th June, 1943, and until the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe.

41.     Ribbon

The ribbon is in the Italian colours, green, white and red. There are five vertical stripes of equal width, one in red at either edge and one in green at the centre, the two intervening stripes being in white.

42.     (a)     In the Army there is no prior time qualification. Airborne troops of the Army who have taken part in airborne operations, in a qualifying Army area for land operations, will qualify.

(b)     Operational service in the Mediterranean theatre, for instance in the Agcan and Dodecanese Corsica, Greece, Sardinia and Yugoslavia after the 11th June, 1943, is a qualification. Operational service in Elba is a qualification. Service in Sicily after the 17th August, 1943, in Sardinia after the 19th September, 1943, and CorsIca after the 4th October, 1943, is not a qualification.

(c)     The Star will be awarded to those who have earned it whatever other Campaign Stars may be granted in addition for services in the war.

THE FRANCE AND GERMANY STAR

43.     This Star is granted for entry into operational service on land from the 6th June, 1944, in France, Belgium, Holland or Germany, until the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe.

44.     Ribbon

The ribbon is in the red, white and blue of the Union Flag, and these colours are also used as a symbol of France and the Netherlands. There are five vertical stripes of equal width, one in blue at either edge and one in red at the centre, the two intervening stripes being in white.

45.     There is no prior time qualification. Airborne troops of the Army who have taken part in airborne operations, in a qualifying Army area for land operations, will qualify.

CLASP TO THE FRANCE AND GERMANY STAR

46.     The Star is not awarded in addition to the Atlantic Star or the Air Crew Europe Star. If a candidate should qualify for these three Stars or two of them the Star first earned will be awarded. If the France and Germany Star is awarded under these conditions a Clasp will be awarded for Service which would qualify for the Atlantic Star. When the ribbon alone is worn a silver rose Emblem is attached to it to denote the award of this Clasp.

THE DEFENCE MEDAL

47.     The Defence Medal has been instituted to commemorate certain non-operational and Civil Defence Service in the War.

48.    Ribbon

The centre of the ribbon is flame coloured, the edges in green, and there are two black stripes representing the blackout.

49.     Qualifying Service

(a)    Service in non-operational areas outside of Canada subject to air attack or closely threatened. These areas are as listed in paragraph 52.

(b)     For non-operational service in the Forces outside of Canada.

(c)     For approved Civil Defence Service, as listed in paragraph 4 (c), in non-operational areas subject to air attack or closely threatened. These areas are listed in paragraph 52.

(d)     For Civil Defence or other specified civilian service in military operational areas, provided civil category was not eligible for Campagn Stars.

49 -     Time Qualification (See R.O. 6735 for amendment)

The time qualifications for the categories of service stated in paragraph will be:-

50.     Closing Date

The closing date of the qualifying period for the Defence Medal will be the 2nd September, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in the Pacific.

51.     General

(a)     Personnel qualified for any of the Campaign Stars may be awarded the Defence Medal in addition, if separately qualified for it. Service qualifying for a Campaign Star cannot run concurrently with service qualifying for the Defence Medal.

(b)     Service in eligible categories brought to an end before the period of three years or twelve, six or three months service has been completed, either by death due to enemy action when on duty, or by injuries entitling the candidate to a Wound Stripe, will be a qualification for the grant of the Defence Medal.

(c)    The Defence Medal will also be granted, without regard to the three year or twelve, six or three months' service requirement, to those British subjects who may have received an award or King's Commendation for brave conduct or King's Commendation for valuable service in the air, duly published in the Canada Gazette, provided that the recipient, when the award or King's Commendation was earned, was serving in a category eligible for the Defence Medal and the distinction was granted in respect of service qualifying for the Defence Medal.

(d)     It will be noticed that, for obvious reasons, the above definition exdudes those granted the George Cross or George Medal for actions in service qualifying for Campaign Stars or for actions in territories neither subjected to air attack nor closely threatened.

(e)     There are a few other recipients of the George Cross or the George Medal not in any of the categories mentioned in the preceding sub-paragraphs (c) and (d), mainly those granted these awards for gallantry in Civil Defence, who were not in a service which would qualify them for the Defence Medal. These also will be eligible specially for the Defence Medal. This arrangement will not apply to holders of awards other than the George Cross and the George Medal.

52.     Non-operational areas subjected to enemy air attack or closely threatened

The territories, in addition to the United Kingdom, which are classified as non-operational areas subjected to enemy air attack or closely threatened are shown below, with dates.

From To
Mediterranean area
Cyprus 03/09/39 08/05/45
Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 03/09/39 09/06/40
13/05/43 08/05/45
Gibraltar 03/09/39 08/05/45
Malta 03/09/39 09/06/40
13/05/43 08/05/45
North Africa 13/05/43 08/05/45
Palestine 03/09/39 08/05/45
Sinai 03/09/39 08/05/45
Syria and Lebanon 03/09/39 07/06/41
12/07/41 08/05/45
Indian Ocean
Aden 03/09/39 08/05/45
Andaman Islands 03/09/39 22/03/42
Ceylon 03/09/39 08/05/45
Iraq 03/09/39 09/04/41
01/06/41 08/05/45
MaldivEgypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudane Islands 03/09/39 08/05/45
Mauritius 03/09/39 08/05/45
Nicobar Islands 03/09/39 22/03/42
Persia 03/09/39 24/08/41
29/08/41 08/05/45
Seychelles 03/09/39 08/05/45
Pacific area
Christmas Island 03/09/39 02/09/45
Fanning Island 03/09/39 02/09/45
Fiji Islands 03/09/39 02/09/45
New Caledonia 03/09/39 02/09/45
New Hebrides 03/09/39 02/09/45
Northern Territory, Commonwealth of Australia, N. of latitude 14° 30" S 03/09/39 02/09/45
Norfolk Island 03/09/39 02/09/45
Phoenix Island 03/09/39 02/09/45
Tonga Island 03/09/39 02/09/45
Torres Strait Islands 03/09/39 02/09/45
Union Island 03/09/39 02/09/45
Washington Island 03/09/39 02/09/45
Western Samoa 03/09/39 02/09/45
West Atlantic-Falkland Islands 03/09/39 08/05/45

THE WAR MEDAL 1939-45

53.     The War Medal 1939-45 is to be granted to full-time personne1 of the Armed Forces wherever their service during the war has been rendered. A 28-day qualification will be adopted. Operational and non-operational service will qualify. In the Merchant Navy it will be a requirement that the 28 days should have been served at sea.

54.     Ribbon

The ribbon is in the red, white and blue of the Union Flag. There is a narrow central red stripe with a narrow white stripe on either side. There arc broad red stripes at either edge, the two intervening stripes being in blue.

55.     (a)     Service between 3rd September, 1939, and 2nd September, 1945, inclusive, will qualify wherever rendered.

(b)     The War Medal will be granted in addition to the Campaign Stars and the Defence Medal, if earned.

(c)     Operational service brought to an end by death, wound, or other disability attributable to service, capture by the enemy, or the cessation of hostilities on the 2nd September, 1945, will qualify a recipient of one of the Campaign Stars for the award of the War Medal even though the service may not amount to 28 days in all. This concession will not apply to an individual who does not qualify for a Campaign Star. When service was ended by capture by the enemy it will be a condition that there should have been freedom from blame. When the 1939-45 Star or one of the other Campaign Stars has been awarded for operational service of less than 28 days, the War Medal will be granted in addition.

Civilians

(d)     The civil organizations listed in paragraph 4 (c) of this Routine Order, provided they served in a country subject to air attack or closely threatened, as listed in paragraph 52 above will be eligible for The War Medal.

MENTIONS IN DESPATCHES AND KING'S COMMENDATIONS

56.    The single bronze oak leaf Emblem signifying in the Forces and the Merchant Navy, either a Mention in Despatches, a King's Commendation for brave conduct, or a King's Commendation for valuable service in the air, is at present attached directly to the coat after all the ribbons, or by itself. If granted for service in the war of 1939-45, it will be worn on the ribbon of The War Medal.

OPERATIONAL SERVICE

57.     (i)     The arceas of qualifying operational service for the Campaign Stars on land are set out as shortly as possible below. These apply to Army, Navy and Air Force service on land and also to operational air crew service.

For the 1939-45 Star, the qualification is six months' operational service, or for air crew, two months, including at least one operational sortie. Service may be aggregated. In certain operations the qualification for the 1939-45 Star for service on land is reduced to entry into operational service.

For the Africa, Pacific, Burma, Italy and France and Germany Stars the qualification is entry into operational service on land, or for air crew, one operational sortie. To avoid repetition the areas of operational service for the 1939-45 Star and these other Stars are shown together.

The 1939-45 Star

(ii)     In the following operations, service of six or two months qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star.

From To
France 3.9.39 9.5.40

(iii)     In the following operations, entry into operational service qualifies for the award of the ] 939-45 Star.

From To
Belgium 10/05/40 19/06/40
Boulogne- Le Touquet 03/06/42
Bruneval 27/02/42 28/02/42
Dieppe 19/08/42
France 10/05/40 19/06/40
Greece and Crete 10/03/41 31/05/41
Hardelot 21/04/42 22/04/42
Holland 12/05/40 13/05/40
India North-West Frontier 03/02/40 24/05/40
18/06/41 26/08/41
28/07/42 18/08/42
Iraq 10/04/41 31/05/41
Lofoten Islands 04/03/41
26/12/41
Lucania (Italy) 10/02/41
Madagascar 05/05/42 05/11/42
Norway 14/04/40 08/06/40
Persia 25/08/41 28/08/41
St Nazaire 27/03/42 28/03/42
Sark 03/10/42 04/10/42
Spitzbergen 25/08/41 03/09/41
16/05/42 08/09/43
Syria 08/06/41 11/07/41
Vaagso 27/12/41

The 1939-45 Star and the Africa Star

(iv)     In the following operations, service of six or two months qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star. Entry into operational service qualifies for the Africa Star.

North Africa (troops under Allied Force Headdquarters, and Middle East Command excluding formations not West of the Suez Canal and Red Sea) 10.6.40 12.5.43
Abyssinia (including attacks on Moyale, Elwak and Kassala) 10.6.40 27.11.41
Eritrea 10.6.40 27.11.41
The Somalilands 10.6.40 27.11.41
Kenya (excluding Tanganyika territory and Uganda, except to troops whom the G.O.C.-in-C., East Africa is satisfied were called forward from Uganda for operations in Lake Rudolf area) 10.6.40 27.11.41
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 10.6.40
Malta 10.6.40 12.5.43

The 1939-45 Star and the Pacific Star

(v)     In the following operations, service of six or two months qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star. Entry into operational service qualifies for the Pacific Star.

(a)     Central Pacific and South China Sea.

Operational service qualifies in all islands South of Latitude 40°N in the Central Pacific and the South China Sea in the area subjected to enemy invasion during the war, and including islands occupied by the enemy up to the cessation of hostilities, for the period from the date of enemy invasion or occupation in each instance and up to the 2nd September, 1945.

The area is bounded on the North by Latitude 40°N. and on the East by the 180th meridian. The southern boundary of the area runs along Latitude 12° South from the 180th meridian to Longitude 145° East. The boundary then turns North along Longitude 145° East to Latitude 90° 40' South. It runs westward along this line to Timor. It then turns due South of Latitude 12° South, runs along this westwards to the Longitude 110° and then to Christmas Island (excluding the Island). The boundary then runs northwards round the South-East coast of Sumatra to Singapore.

It will be seen that this line encloses, for instance, the Marshall Islands, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, and the Santa Cruz Islands. It excludes the Phoenix Islands, the Samoa Islands. the Fiji Islands, the New Hebrides and New Caledonia.

The chief qualifying periods are as follows:-

From To
Bismarck Archipelago 23/01/42 02/09/45
Borneo and Sarawak 31/12/41 02/09/45
Caroline Islands 08/12/41 02/09/45
Celebes 26/01/42 02/09/45
Gilbert and Ellice Islands 10/12/41 02/09/45
Guam 12/12/41 02/09/45
Iwo Jima 08/12/41 02/09/45
Java 05/03/42 02/09/45
Marianas 08/12/41 02/09/45
Marshall Islands 08/12/41 02/09/45
Molucca Islands 30/01/42 02/09/45
Nauru 08/12/41 02/09/45
New Guinea 07/03/42 02/09/45
Ocean Island 25/08/42 02/09/45
Okinawa 08/12/41 02/09/45
Philippine Islands 10/12/41 02/09/45
Solomon Islands (British Solomon Islands Protectorate and Australian Mandated Territory) 01/02/42 02/09/45
Timor 20/02/42 02/09/45
Wake Island 22/12/41 02/09/45

This special arrangement covers the whole area of enemy land penetration in the Central Pacific and South China Sea. The zone as a whole is classified as operational for the purpose of the award of the 1939-45 Star and the Pacific Star from the date of the enemy invasions in each specific case up to the 2nd September, 1945.

(b)     China and Malaya.

From To
China* 11.12.41 15.2.42
Malaya* 8.12.41 15.2.42

*See also sub-paragraph (vii) below.

(vi)     In the following operations entry into operational service qualifies for the 1939-45 Star and the Pacific Star. 

From To
Aleutian Islands (air crew service only) . 03/06/42 16/08/43
Bismarck Archipelago (Enemy invasion) 23/01/42 24/01/42
Bismarck Archipelago
Admiralty Islands (Allied invasion) 29/02/44 18/05/44
Mussau Island (Allied invasion) 30/03/44 08/04/44
Emirau Island (Allied invasion) 20/03/44 20/03/44
Borneo and Sarawak (Enemy invasion) 31/12/41 31/01/42
Caroline Islands
Palau (Allied invasion) 06/09/44 14/10/44
Peleiu (Allied invasion) 15/09/44 30/09/44
Angaur (Allied invasion) 17/09/44 20/09/44
Ngulu (Allied invasion) 16/10/44 16/10/44
Ulithi (Allied invasion) 21/09/44 21/09/44
Celebes (Enemy invasion) 26/01/42 26/02/42
Gilbert Islands
Tarawa (Enemy invasion) 10/12/41 27/09/42
(Allied invasion) 21/11/43 25/11/43
Butaritari (Makin) (Enemy invasion) 10/12/41 12/12/41
(Allied invasion) 21/11/43 25/11/43
Abaiang (Enemy invasion) 10/12/41 24/12/41
Abomama (Allied invasion) 21/11/43 25/11/43
Hong Kong (Enemy invasion) 08/12/41 25/12/41
Iwo Jima (Allied invasion) 19/02/45 16/03/45
Java (Enemy invasion) 05/03/42 09/03/42
Malaya* (Enemy invasion) 08/12/41 15/02/42
Marianas Islands
Saipan (Allied invasion) 15/06/44 18/07/44
Guam (Allied invasion) 21/07/44 10/08/44
Tinian (Allied invasion) 24/07/44 01/08/44
Molucca Islands (Enemy Invasion) 30/01/42 26/02/42
Morotai (Allied invasion) 15/09/44 05/12/44
Nauru (Enemy invasion) 08/12/41 01/03/42
Ocean Island (Enemy invasion) 25/08/42 26/08/42
Okinawa (Allied invasion) 01/04/45 21/06/45
Philippine Islands (including outer islands) (Allied invasion) 20/10/44 04/07/45
Solomon Islands (British Solomon Islands Protectorate and Australian Mandated Territory)
Northern, i.e., Buka, Shortland (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 30/04/42
Bougainville (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 30/04/42
Florida (with Tulagi Harbour) (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 31/05/42
(Allied invasion) 01/08/42 31/08/42
Guadalcanal. (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 31/05/42
(Allied invasion) 07/08/42 09/02/43
New Georgia, etc., i.e., New Georgia group (including Vella Lavella and Vangunu) (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 31/05/42
(Allied invasion) 28/06/43 13/10/43
Treasury Group (including Mono) (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 31/05/42
(Allied invasion) 25/10/43 26/11/43
Choiscul (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 31/05/42
(Allied raid) 28/10/43 04/11/43
Malaita (Enemy invasion) 01/02/42 31/05/42
Green Islands (Allied invasion) 15/02/44 19/02/44
Sumatra* (Enemy invasion) 14/02/42 23/03/42
Timor (Enemy invasion) 20/02/42 31/03/42

*See also sub-paragraph (vii) below.

The 1939-45 Star and the Burma Star

(vii)     In the following operations service of six or two months qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star. Entry into operational service qualifies for the Burma Star.

From To
Burma 11.12.41 2.9.45
Bengal and Assam 1.5.42 31.12.43
Bengal or Assam (East of Brahmaputra) 1.1.44 2.9.45
China* 16.2.42 2.9.45
Malayat⁑ 16.2.42 2.9.45
Sumatra⁂ 24.3.42 2.9.45

* See also sub-paragraph (v) above.
⁑ See also sub-paragraphs (v) and (vi) above.
⁂ See also sub-paragraph (vi) above.

(viii)     In the following operations, entry into operational service qualifies for the 1939-45 Star and the Burma Star.

From To
Burma (Enemy invasion) 22.2.42 15.5.42
Burma (Brig. Wingate's Force) 7.2.43 15.7.43
Burma (First Arakan campaign) 1.12.42 31.5.43
Burma (Special Force, General Wingate and General Lentaigne) 15.2.42 27.8.44

The 1939-45 Star and the Italy Star

(ix)     In the following operations, service of six or two months qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star. Entry into operational service qualifies for the Italy Star.

From To
Aegean 11.6.43 8.5.45
Corsica 11.6.43 4.10.43
Dodecanese 11.6.43 8.5.45
Greece 11.6.43 8.5.45
Italy (including Elba) 11.6.43 8.5.45
Pantellaria 11.6.43
Sardinia 11.6.43 19.9.43
Sicily 11.6.43 17.8.43
Yugoslavia 11.6.43 8.5.45

(x)     In the following operation entry into operational service qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star and for the Italy Star.

From To
Sicily 10.7.43 17.8.43

The 1939-45 Star and the France and Germany Star

(xi)     In the following operations, service of six or two months qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star. Entry into operational service qualifies for the France and Germany Star.

From To
France, Belgium, Holland or Germany 6.6.44 8.5.45

(xii)     The reckoning of service in the operations in the above list is subject to the various approved rules relating to the last six months of active hostilities in the European and the Pacific and Burma theatres respectively.

ALLIED AND OTHER FOREIGN NATIONALS IN THE BRITISH FORCES

58.     The Campaign Stars and the War Medal

(a)     The categories of Allied ,and other foreign nationals in the British Forces eligible for British Campaign Stars and the War Medal are as follows:-

(i)     Foreign nationals commissioned or enlisted as individuals into British Forces.

(ii)     Foreign nationals commissioned or enlisted into British Forces by virtue of their membership of Allied Forces.

(b)     Personnel in the above-mentioned categories are eligible provided they do not receive a similar award from their own governments. It is explained to recipients that the British ribbons are issued provisionally, and that their claim to the corresponding Star~ (and therefore the right to continue to wear the ribbons) would be invalidated by the acceptance from their own or other Allied governmrnts of any other meoal employed or instituted for general use in this war.

(c)     Foreign nationals, mainly those covered in sub-para (a) (i) abo\'e, who subsequently transferred to the Forces of their own countries must. in order to qualify, haye completed theiF qualifying service before their own countries declared war.

Defence Medal

59.     The six months, or one year, overseas rule for the Defence Medal is intended to recognize British subjects who were put to the discomfort and inconvenience of service overseas during the war. It is intended that foreign subjects from the continent who proceeded to the United Kingdom during the war, for instance in 1940, should be required to serve the whole three years.

ADMINISTRATION

60.     Procedure

(a)     Campaign Stars and The Defence Medal

All ranks who under these regulations now consider themselves eligible for the award of any of the aforementioned Campaign Stars and Clasps and The Defence Medal will make application to wear the appropriate ribbons on a form as shown annexed hereto which will be produced locally. Applications, when completed by individual will be dealt with as follows:-

(i)     Passed to OC Unit who will certify the regimental particulars and service of the individual and entitlement to the award in the spaces provided on the form.

(ii)    Entitlement will then be published in Unit Part II Orders and this information placed on the application form which will then be passed to D. Records, NDHQ.

(b)     The War Medal 1939-45

Pending the issue of the medal authority to wear the ribbon will be an entry in unit or formation Part II Orders. A suitable entry will also be made in Part I of the soldier's pay book and Officer's Record of Service Book, if issued.

61.     Doubtful Cases

In cases of doubt, applications, together with a statement of full particulars, will be forwarded through usual channels to the Secretary, Service and Campaign Awards Committee, care of Director of Records, NDHQ.

62.     Personnel not now serving

The Service and Campaign Awards Committee will be responsible for certifying entitlement to awards and issuing ribbons for discharged Army personnel, including personnel discharged fur the purpose of enlistment in another Force, other than one of His Majesty's Forces . Applications should be sent to the Secretary, Service and Campaign Awards Committee, care of the Director of Records, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa. All applications should gin regimental number, rank, full names and unit with which serving at time of discharge. Application should bear address and usual signature of applicant.

63.     No issue yet to next-of-kin

No issue of ribbon will be made to next-of-kin of deceased personnel prior to the actual issue of Stars and Clasps, The Defence Medal and The War Medal 1939-45; when these Stars and Medals have been struck issue will take place in accordance with K.R. (Can) 1939 para 1359.

64.     Issue of ribbons

Ribbons and emblems will be issued to qualified personnel under Unit or Formation arrangements as soon as they can be made available. All ranks entitled thereto will receive a free issue of four inches of each ribbon for which they qualify.

65.     Indents

No indents will be submitted until advice is received from the District Ordnance Officer. When such advice is received indents for requirements of ribbons and emblems will be submitted through the normal Ordnance channels.

ANNEXURE

Annexure "A": Application form (to be produced locally).

(HQC 54-27-94-22)

W. H. S. MACKLIN,
Brigadier,
Acting Adjutant General.

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